Kadın Hentbolcuların Bullying Deneyimleri

Veli Onur ÇELİK

Özet


Bu araştırma amacı; Türkiye’deki kadın hentbolcuların sporculuk yaşantıları içerisinde bullying davranışı ile ilgili deneyimlerini incelenmektir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları, amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden biri olan kartopu örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Milli Takım düzeyinde çeşitli kategorilerde görev almış 30-37 yaşları arasında, beş (5) kadın hentbol oyuncusu araştırma katılımcısı olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırma verileri, bireysel derinlemesine görüşme tekniği ile toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; kadın hentbolcuların bullying davranışı ile ilgili deneyimleri incelendiğinde kaynağın erkek antrenörler oldukları görülmüştür. Genel olarak kadın hentbolcuların erkek antrenörleri tarafından aşağılandıklarını, hakarete uğradıklarını, fiziksel ve sözel olarak şiddete maruz kaldıklarını, suçlandıkları, takım arkadaşları ve seyirciler önünde küçük düşürüldüklerini ve cezalandırıldıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Katılımcılar aynı zamanda bu olumsuz davranışlar nedeniyle sporu bırakmaya kadar uzanan psikolojik ve fiziksel sonuçlar yaşadıklarını belirtmişlerdir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Bullying, Kadın, Kadın Hentbol Oyuncuları


Referanslar


Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: a theory of genderedorganizations. GenderandSociety, 4(2), 139-158.

Besag, V. E. (1989). Bulliesand Victims in Schools. A Guide to Understanding Management. UK: Open University Press.

Bogdan, R.C. ve Biklen, S.K. (1998). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods, Boston, Allyn and Bacon.

Boivin, M., Hymel, S., & Bukowski, W. M. (1995). The roles of social withdrawal, peer rejection, and victimization in peers in predicting loneliness and depressed mood in childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 7,765-786.

Card, N. A., Isaacs, J., & Hodges, E. V. (2007). Correlates of school victimization: Implications for prevention and intervention. In J. E. Zins, M. J. Elias, & Maher, C. A. (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peerharassment. A handbook of prevention and intervention (pp. 339-366). New York: Haworth Press.

Cowie, H.,& Jennifer, D. (2008). New Perspectives on Bullying. UK; McGraw-Hill Education.

Craig, W. M., Pepler, D. J., & Atlas, R. S. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playgroundand in the classroom. School Psychology International, 21, 22-36.

Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., Edstrom, L. V., & Snell, J. L. (2009). Observed reductions in school bullying, nonbullying aggressionand destructive bystander behavior: A longitudinal evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 466-481.

Gökce, S., & Çelik, V.O. (2016). The experiences of woman basketball players about bulying: A case from Turkey. International Journal of Humanitie sand Management Sciences, 4 (1), 2320-4044.

Gökler, R. (2009), Okullarda akran zorbalığı. Uluslararası İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 1-33.

Gündüz, N., Sunay, H., & Koz, M. (2007). Incidents of sexual harassment in Turkey on elite sportswomen, The Sport Journal, 10(2).

Hymel, S., & Swearer, S. (2009). Bullying: An old-aged problem that needs new solutions. Educational Psychology, Department of Educational Psychology Papers and Publications.http://www.education.com/reference/article/bullyingabout- power-and-abuse-of-power/

İyem, C. (2013). Bullying in football experiences of Turkish professional footballers. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 479-488.

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rimpela, M., Marttunen, M., Rimpela, A., & Rantanen, P. (1999). Bullying, depression and suicidal ideation in finnish adolescents: School survey. British Medical Journal, 319, 348-351.

Kerr, G. (2009). Female Coaches’ experience of harassment and bullying, Canadian Journal for Women In Coaching, 9(3).

Konik, J., & Cortina, L. (2008). Policing gender at work: Intersections of harassment based on sex and sexuality. Social Justice Research, 21, 313-337.

Matthews, D.D. (2004). Child Abuse Sourcebook. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics.

Mills, G.E. (2003). Action Research: A Guide For The Teacher Researcher. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merill/Prentice Hall.

Nansel, T. R., Haynie, D. L., & Simons-Morton, B. G. (2003). The association of bullying and victimization with middle school adjustment. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19, 45-61.

Nirmal, R. (2010). Coaches’ perceived ımpact of the respect ın sport (ris) program on bullyıng, abuse, neglect, and harassment ın sports. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi. The Unıversity of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Respect in Sport (2009). Respect in sportcoach program. Retrieved on Aug. 10, 2009 from http://www.respectinsport.com/riscoach, Erişim tarihi: 13 Ocak 2016.

Salmivalli, C. (1999). Participant role approach to school bullying: Implications for interventions. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 453-459.

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Bjorkqvist, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1-15.

Salmivalli, C.,& Voeten, M. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms and behavior associated with bullying in schools. International Journal of Behavioral Development.28, 246-258.

Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Parental maltreatmentand emotional dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 349-363.

Stirling, A. E. (2009). Definition and constituents of maltreatment in sport: establishing a conceptual framework for research practitioners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 1091–1099.

Stirling, A. E., Bridges, E. J., Cruz, E. L,. & Muntjoy, M. L. (2011). Canadian academy of sportand exercise medicine position paper: Abuse, harassment, and bullying in sport. Clin J Sport Med, 21(5), 385-391.

Swearer, S. M., & Doll, B. (2001). Bullying in schools: An ecological framework. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 7-23.

Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Krygsman, A., Miller, J., & Stiver, K. (2008). Bullying: Are researchers and children/youth talking about the same thing? International Journal of Behavior, 32, 486-495.

Welsh, S. (1999). Gender and sexual harassment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 169-190.

Yıldırım, A, ve Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri (5.Baskı), Ankara, Seçkin Yayıncılık.

HTTP-1 “9 Ways Coaches Can Prevent and Stop Bullying in Sport” http://truesport.org/articles/coaches/9-ways-coaches-can-prevent-stop-bullying-sport. Erişim Tarihi: 10 Mayıs 2016.


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.

Bu makale hakkındaki yorumlar

Tüm yorumları gör


##submission.copyrightStatement##